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168) An essay by Mark Hugo
Ludwik Kowalski (8/13/04)
Department of Mathematical Sciences
Montclair State University, Upper Montclair, NJ, 07043
1) In an e-mail message, received three days ago, Mark Hugo wrote: I've taken the liberty of attaching a 26 page pdf which details results from a lab in Kiev, Ukraine. Whether or not "Cold Fusion" is real, Dr. Adamenko, a long time stellar THEORIST was stimulated by the results of P&F and others to rethink his beliefs and theories on stellar action during the '90's. As a result of this rethinking, and because of some odd spark of genius, from 2000 onward, he has been experimenting with "coherent electron bunches" and their impact on "heavy elements". As you will see in reviewing the attached booklet.pdf (taken from www.proton21.com.ua) the result of these interactions is not only massive nuclear transmutations for energies under 10,000 eV per transmutation (miracle #1), but also the formation of easily measurable (by Mass Spec) amounts of Super Heavy Elements. (Shall we say miracle number 2.) All in all, there is a stunning amount of evidence here of phenomenon which needs careful attention to be paid to it.
2) In my reply, sent last night (8/12/04), I wrote that, after reading Adamenko and Vysotskii paper, presented at the ICCF10, I do not think that the reported experiments belong to the area of cold fusion. A very short pulse of electrons, delivering 1 kJ of energy to a tiny spot (10 to 100 microns) on a target, might be responsible for a very high momentary temperature. Looks like a hot plasma setup to me. The experimental results are sensational but I am in no position to judge them. They performed 5000 experiments. That is very impressive. I also asked Mark if he could write a short summary of Adamenkos work for a typical physics teacher, for example in a high school or college. I would be happy to post such paper on my web site.
3) This morning Mark Hugo wrote: . . . Now one other thing, there is much MORE than 1018 atoms which receive the 1 KJoule of input energy. Probably more like 1021 atoms. Thus the actual energy input per atom in the target samples is closer to 10 eV. At this level we can definitely say we are in the "chemical energy" range. There are NO nuclear events which should be occurring, PERIOD. (But the experimental evidence is that they ARE occurring.) I'll take some time this weekend and give you a write up in a form that college level and high school level physics students can understand.
With 20 years of experience in nuclear power ... plus my current position as a Materials Scientist for Hutchinson Technology, I AM in a position to judge the experimental work. Doing experimental work with materials is my "bread and butter". So I HAVE had experience with Xref, Auger, ESCA and Mass Spec many times over the last 20 years. WITH this experimental background I can say this: UNLESS ADEMENKO IS FRAUDULENTLY FABRICATING his experimental data, his data backs up all his claims. (I.e., nuclear transmutations at cold conditions, and generation of super heavy nuclei ... using a method which bears NO relation to high energy physics. That's where we need to start!
4) I am still waiting for Marks essey (8/17/04). I strated looking for information about Adamenko over the Internet. His private Ukrainian lab (EDL, in Kiev), has a web page: <http://www.proton21.com.ua/index_en.html>; it is worth reading. It sais that the project is based on an innovative and original conception on initiating extreme conditions for nucleosynthesis process ignition in a super-dense cold substance. At the February 2004 workshop in Germany Adamenko said: Briefly described is the authors conception of shock coherent collective cascaded cumulative mechanism of particles acceleration through initiating the self-developing collapse of a converging solitary shell-wave of extreme density of energy and substance. Also provided is some part of experimental data obtained in course of practical implementation of that concept. The paper is aimed at preliminary discussion of the composition and content of collected works describing the experimental and theoretical results obtained in the Electrodynamics Laboratory of Proton-21 company in Kiev, Ukraine. This work has been carried out within the commercial project called Luch, which is developed on our initiative and aims at the creation of new, efficient and environmentally safe nuclear technologies for neutralizing the radioactivity and synthesizing stable isotopes of chemical elements, including superheavy ones.
Luch, by the way, is a private research laboratory in Russia (near Moscow). Karabut, whose work was described in unit #13, works in that laboratory. Once again I am impressed by highly unusual isotopic ratios among the reaction products. Here is an illustration:
90Zr --> 6% abundance in reaction products versus 51% in nature
92Zr --> 31% abundance in reaction products versus 17% in nature
96Zr --> 39% in reaction products versus 2% in nature
It appears that their compression process, which I do not understand, produces less proton-rich nuclides and less neutron-rich nuclides than found in nature. Will this experimental fact be confirmed by other qualified scientists? Showing that something highly unusual is taking place is always very important, even if the process cannot yet be comprehended. I am puzzled by the phrase shock coherent collective cascaded cumulative mechanism of particles acceleration. I suppose that coherent electrons are electrons hitting the target at essentially the same time. What else can it mean in this context? The term driver probably refers to an electron accelerator with a photo-electric cathode. That cathode is bombarded by a pulsating laser beam. This produces bunches of electrons that are accelerated together. I happen to be know people working with such machines in the US.
What impressed me most was formation of transuranium elements. Contamination by impurities can not possibly be responsible for atomic nuclei characterized by atomic masses above 250. Such nuclei have never been found in our natural environment. At a recent workshop in Bonn (Germany, February, 2004) the authors reported the synthesis of nucei with atomic masses 253, 264, 278, 280, 294,395, 433 and 434. That is what Mark Hugo calls Miracle #2. I wander if Darmstadt heavy ions physicists were present at this workshop and how they reacted to the report. They, and scientists from Dubna (Russia), are experts in syntesizing superheavy nuclei. (These experts, by the way, use the term cold fusion to describe rare collisions of two atomic nuclei at sub-coulomb kinetic energies. The process in which superheavy nuclei are presumably synthesized by Adamenko et. al., seems to be very different.)
4) P.S. (8/16/04)
While waiting for Marks essay I found something puzzling. By going to Ademenkos website, <http://www.proton21.com.ua/about.html> one can ask for the description of the laboratory in two languages: Russian or English. Reading it in Russian I see the phrase perierozhdienije jadernovo veschestwa. This translates into rebirth of nuclear matter. I think that the term reorganization of nuclear matter would be more appropriate, unless zero point energy is involved. Do they think that nuclear matter disappears for a moment and then reappears in new form? To see how the perierozdhienije was translated I clicked on the English button. But the English text is not the same as the Russian text. Why is it so? (In reading their ICCF10 report again I saw that perierozhdienije jadernovo veschestwa was translated as nuclear regeneration. I was not familiar with this term.)
Here is my translation of the above Russian document.
The laboratort of electrodynamic studies (EDL) was created in 1999, to implement new and save technology of processing radioactive waste. The method is based on the authors hypothesis concerning a possibilty of simulating a previously unknown natural process. That self-organizing process, the avalanche-like collapsing (concenteation of energy) in condense matter, can possibly result in complete rebirth of nuclear matter. First experimental confirmation of that idea, by using a specially constructed setup, occurred on Ferbruary 24, 2000. It was a demonstration of the electro-nuclear collapsing to extreme (microscopic and quasi-point-like) densities.
Several thousand successfull experiments were conducted between 1999 and 2003. Acting on soid state targets, we observed their specifically explosive destruction accompanied by emission of transformed (artificially synthesized) matter. Artificial generation of matter, generated in explosive destruction of targets, was confirmed through more than 15,000 analytical experiments, using the most modern equipment, conducted in other laboratories, not only in Ukraine, but also in Russia and USA. We can definitely conclude that:
1) Experimentally effective technology was created and confirmed. It provides conditions under which new kind of nuclear reactions (collective multi-particle processes in condensed matter) become possible for the first time in worlds history.
2) An experimental setup was created to initiate energy-efficient and highly productive
process of artificial synthesis of nuclear matter.
3) Products of artificial synthesis contain no radioactive isotopes.
4) In working with radioactive targets we definitively observed the decrease of radioactivity resulting from the complete nuclear rebirth in the parts of material after highly-energetic processing.
5) Products of artificial synthesis contain long-lived superheavy atoms of unknown chemical elements (at the border and outside the border of the periodic chart). The products are synthesized at rates which are many order of magnitude higher than in classical, less energy-effective methods.
Here is the text displayed after the English button is preassed on that page:
Advancements over the span of the last fifty years in many fields of scientific and technological research such as Genetics, Physics, Telecommunications and other fields has outperformed progress in the field of Power Generation and Decontamination of Radioactive wastes. Progress in the fields of controlled thermonuclear synthesis and radioactive wastes decontamination technology also lag in comparison despite investments in research by the developed nations exceeding USD 100 billion. One key issue that remains unresolved to this date in this particular field of research is the development of processes and technology for controlled ignition of self-sustaining nuclear reactions. For this, an adequate "initiator" of such controlled nuclear transformations is required; one which will result in a sustainable and controlled energy output and the transmutation of radioactive atoms into stable ones.
ElectroDynamics Lab (EDL) was founded in Kiev, Ukraine in 1999 by a group of Ukrainian engineers and scientists to address the specific problem of the adequate initiator. EDL's primary mission statement was to develop a novel, safe and effective technology for radioactive wastes decontamination. Today, privately funded EDL has evolved into a leading edge Research and Development center employing in excess of 120 researchers and scientists. The proven results of its research and its proprietary process, currently being patented, are able today to address the unresolved issue of nuclear wastes transformation. EDL's results are revolutionary in their nature and are leading to important commercial and industrial breakthrough applications.
I will assume that the Russian version is more recent because it gives more details. On the other hand, it may be the other way around; perhaps they no longer believe in the rebirth theory. This does not make any difference to me; at present I am interested in strange experimental results, not in theories.
4) P.S. (8/22/04)
Still waiting, I went back to <http://www.proton21.com.ua/index_en.html> and clicked on the our news button. In the window that opened I noticed some new pdf files. The first that I downloaded was Decay_IMS3f_en.pdf. It shows that alpha particles of up to 430 MeV were observed (November 23, 2003) with a Si detector from a foil that was bombarded with 12.5 keV oxigen ions. This experimental results is not less shocking than their observation of stable transuranium nuclides.
The second downloaded file, Decay_LMS_en.pdf, shows that alpha particles were onserved with CR-39 when the foil was bombarded by red light from a laser (delivering 50 mJ/14 ns pulses to spots of target areas whose diameters were ~0.5 mm). This translates into about 3 million watts. As I said before, this is not a typical cold fusion wattage. But results are impressive. On the exposed CR-39 surface they found 149 alpha tracks (versus only 18 tracks on the other surface.
I also downloaded files containing two reports (dated April27, 2004) on methdology and results from recent experiments. I will read these papers later.
5) Marks essey was received this morning (8/23/04). He wrote explained the delay and added an observation. There is one little ray of hope for Dr. Adamenkos work. Since he started in the 80s and 90s as a Stellar Theorist, and was widely published and acknowledged, he has an in with that community. As such, he has been quietly, but deliberately showing up at a variety of Astro Physics and Stellar Physics conferences and presenting his results. To date (August, 2004) however, interestingly THERE IS NO DISCUSSION OF HIS RESULTS available ANYWHERE PUBLICALLY. Only his OWN publications. [Another example of] the benign neglect? WHY there is no discussion?
I do not know how to answer this question. To promote discussion I would select one easily reproducible experiment and would focus on it in all publications and talks. It is not easy to think critically about results of 5,000 experiments. And I would publish a complete description of the so-called coherent driver of electrons used to generate nuclear transmutations. A discussion would occur spontaneousely if essential instruments were available to perform experiments in other places.
Simulating nucleosynthesis on earth?
Mark Hugo, August 23, 2004
Argon Engine, Excelsior, MN , USA
Since 1999 experiments have been performed at the Electrodynamics lab outside of Kiev, Ukraine using coherent electron bunches to stimulate nuclear transformations in heavy elements. To understand the significance of these results a brief review of some basic nuclear physics is in order. According to a reference on nuclear technology: In 1932 Cockcroft and Walton produced the first nuclear reaction using artificially accelerated particles, bombarding and disintegrating lithium nuclei with protons accelerated to several hundred keV. By opening and closing switches in proper sequence they could build up a potential of 800 kilovolts. (Thus an 800,000 eV particle). This gave the potential to accelerate protons down an evacuated tube eight feet long. They then put a lithium target at the end of the tube and found that protons disintegrated a lithium nucleus into two alpha particles.
Actually this is not quite correct, as the first nuclear reaction observed was found in 1919 by Ernst Rutherford, using collisions with naturally occurring alpha emitters. (4,000,000 eV). Nevertheless this gives us some insight into the energy levels involved in nuclear science. Starting with the Cockroft and Walton work (at 800,000 eV and moving upward) fundamentally all reactions involving re-arranging the nucleus fall into the realm of 1 million electron volts and above. This has to do with the fact that the binding energy between a proton and a neutron in a nucleus is on the order of 1 to 2 million eV, and has to be overcome to re-arrange a nucleus.
There are two exceptions to this rule, however. One is the nuclear reactions which a produced by adding a neutron to a heavy nucleus (200 plus atomic mass units.) This sort of reaction can involve very LOW particle energy, but demands a source of NEUTRONS to allow it to happen. Also, all known neutron stimulated nuclear reactions (referred to as fissions) result in highly energized end products, which are colloquially referred to as nuclear waste. (I.e., they are in an unstable nuclear state and continue emitting gamma, beta radiation and alpha particles after they are formed.)
The other exception is the nuclear reaction of fusing two light nuclei (<12 AMU) together. Technically this can happen with energies of just above 10,000 eV. However the target cross section of these reactions is so small as to make their probability very low for happening in conventional particle beam devices at energies that low. Now we come to the work by Adamenko. Here is an example of a heavy element sample from Adamenkos work before it is exposed to a bunch of electrons delivering 1 Kilo-joule of energy.
Note that this is a 99.99 % pure ball of copper. After a 1 kilo-joule coherent electron blast the following is obtained:
You will notice more than a dozen elements in this analysis. This sample is on the original Cu plate that the original Cu ball was on. Careful analysis (using standard methods, EDAX, XPS, combined with Mass Spec work) by Dr. Adamenko has indicated that 1018 atoms have undergone nuclear transmutations in these samples. The highly unusual nature of these transformations becomes clear when the amount of energy per reaction is calculated. One kJ translates into 6.2 X 1021 eV. Therefore, only 6.2*1021/1018 = 6,200 eV of energy is used, on the average, per per nuclear event. This is about 1600 times less than a typical binding energy of 10 MeV. of Dr. Adamenko. But this is not the only anomalous result reported by Ukrainian scientists. Another highly unusual result is detection of transuranium elements. Transuranium elements discovered by Dr. Adamenko appeared in large quantities (sufficiently large to be observed with a mass spectrometer). Furthermore, they did not decay rapidly. This can be contrasted with what is known about transuranium elements synthesized in nuclear reactions induced by heavy ions. In these reactions the amount of energy per event is higher than 100, 000, 000 eV per event.
The mass spectrometer output below has a peak due to the element whose atomic number is 115. It was produced when copper was bombarded by electrons.
The peak in the 328 to 330 mass would be the Element 115 trace. The 338 to 433 peaks are due to elements with even higher atomic numbers. The Cs3C2 and Pb2O shown on the second mass spec are there for reference. They are the only known compounds that would fit in the realms shown. The nature of the mass spec work is that it would tend to break the chemical bonds of the Cs/C or Pb/O combinations and resolve only the Cs, C, Pb or O individually, so it is UNLIKELY that even if the compounds existed they would show up in the mass spec results as combined.
Now without belaboring detail, the only way that mass spec signals in these realms could be detected would be with numbers such as 1013 or 1014 atoms or above in real terms. Thus not only is the energy levels which Dr. Adamenko making Super Heavy Elements divergent from the High Energy Physics community by a factor of 30,000 but also the end production result is off from the H.E.P. groups by 1012. This means, of course, that there is an insanely huge gulf (right now) between the standard high energy physics community and the work being done by Dr. Adamenko. How do other scientists deal with this difficulty?
There are usually two approaches I have seen to this sort of situation. Number one, is as in Pons and Fleischmanns work, to be tremendously demanding and take advantage of perceived weakness in the experimental work, and to pick it apart. There is one other method of response to such revolutions I have also found. That is what is called benign neglect. (Or the , ignore it and it will go away or the PAY NO ATTENTION THE MAN BEHIND THE CURTAIN response.) A good example of the latter is the response that Dr. George Miley of the U. of IL has gotten to his I.E.C. fusion results. (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device). Mileys IEC devices are WILDLY more successful (although they cannot generate NET energy output, not yet..) than the 500,000,000 Dollar Princeton Tokomak (R.I.P.) or the equally expensive Lawrence Livermore Shriva laser pellet fusion device(s).
Miley spent $20,000 and 3 graduate students time (for a year) building his I.E.C. device. But does one find the Fusion research community beating a path to Dr. Mileys door? NO! In point of fact, because Dr. Miley was worked on Cold Fusion devices, he has been pilloried as a quaint crank, who is getting funny as he ages. Fortunately, George is the type of personality that doesnt bow to external pressure, and he continues on with his interesting and progressive work. (Although with only a FRACTION of the funding the give us another BILLION, and in 10 years nuclear Fusion will only be 10 years away crowd.)
Getting back to Dr. Adamenko, there is one little ray of hope for his work. Since Dr. Adamenko started in the 80s and 90s as a Stellar Theorist, and was widely published and acknowledged, he has an in with that community. As such, he has been quietly, but deliberately showing up at a variety of Astrophysics and Stellar Physics conferences and presenting his results. To date (August, 2004) however, interestingly THERE IS NO DISCUSSION OF HIS RESULTS available ANYWHERE PUBLICALLY. Only his OWN publications.
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