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157) Comments and questions

157) Comments and questions


Ludwik Kowalski (7/8/04)

Department of Mathematical Sciences

Montclair State University, Upper Montclair, NJ, 07043




In unit #150 I posted comments and questions related to a paper on calorimetry. I was prompted by a message from Richard Eskimos. In this unit I decided to do the same about a paper on unexpected charged particles. In planning to start a research project in that area, using CR-39 detectors, I selected a paper published by Andrei Lipson, and his coworkers. They are experts in using track detectors of charged particles in the area of cold fusion. The title of that paper is Phenomenon of an Energetic Charged Particle Emission From Hydrogen/Deuterium Loaded Metals; it can be downloadable from the website.


That paper, like the one chosen to ask questions about excess heat, was presented to experts attending the 10th International Cold Fusion Conference. It is not surprising that somebody who has not read earlier papers has difficulties with understanding numerous detail. As in unit #150 I want to ask questions illustrating difficulties encountered by non-experts in reading conference papers.


What follows is the text part of the article with questions and comments (in red). The four authors of this paper are A.G.  Lipson, A.S. Roussetski, G.H. Miley and E.I. Aaunin. They represent prestigeous research centers: (a) University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, Urbana, IL,  (b) Lebedev Physics Institute, of the Russian Academy of Sciences and, c) Institute of Physical Chemistry, of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The text of the paper (without figures) is in black while my comments and questions are in red. Will the answers to my questions be provided by some readers? I hope so. It will not be difficult to incorporate such input into this text by using a different color.



The new phenomenon of energetic alpha (up to 16.0 MeV) and proton (~1.7 MeV) emissions has been discovered from a metal surface possessing a large affinity for hydrogen and loaded/excited by electrolysis, glow discharge or powerful laser. These various experiments on charged particle detection show a remarkable feature, namely all exhibit a similar specific energy yield of long-range alphas (1 alpha particle per 10-15 eV input energy/Pd(Ti) target atom) independent of the excitation power of delivering method (electrolysis, glow discharge or laser irradiation). This result suggests the mechanism of energy transfer causing the energetic particle emissions in hydrogen loaded metal targets is similar despite the seemingly dissimilar excitation techniques.


I. Introduction

Charged particle emissions from the surface of Pd and Ti deuterides have been studied since the beginning of experiments on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) product detection in metal deuterides. First experiments on this charged particle detection were mainly, referenced to confirm generation of DD-reaction products (3.0 MeV protons and 1.0 MeV tritons) in metal deuterium system. However, alongside with charged DD-reaction products, there were appeared reports concerning detection of more energetic particles than would be expected from DD-reaction [1-4], especially during hundred-keV accelerator deuteron bombardment of Ti and Pd targets.


Earlier we just reported that during exothermic deuterium or hydrogen desorption we found high energy alpha-particle emission in the energy range 8-14 MeV, that could not be ascribed to known natural alpha -- emitters. Indeed, the typical charged particle spectrum taken in vacuum using SSB -- detector during about 8 days shows no counts beyond a 8.0 MeV energy (Fig. 1 [5]).


(1***) The SSB probably stands for the Solid State Barrier,  a common Si detector.


Figure 1.


That is not surprise because maximal alpha energy of radon series is about 7.8 MeV, while energy of cosmic induced protons rarely exceeds 2.0 MeV. In contrast to Background, the dE-E spectra detected from Au/Pd/PdO:D(H)x samples during exothermic deuterium desorption clear showed presence of high energy alpha-component (Fig.2 [6]).


(2***) What are the horizontal segments in the second bin (0.5 to 1 MeV)? I am referring to Figure 1.


Figure 2


New insight was recently obtained from the use of CR-39 track detectors to the study energetic particle emissions from the surface of Pd/Ti loaded with hydrogen/deuterium [7]. Experimental runs with CR-39 to detect long-range alpha-particles in-situ during electrolysis of Pd/dielectric substrate cathodes showed energetic alphas (9 < Ea < 16 MeV) yield Na ~ (2-5)*10-4 s-1 -cm-2 Pd in 4p-str accompanied by even more intensive emission of ~ 1.7 MeV protons.


The objective of present research was focused to study energetic charged particle emission (ECPE) at various power loading and/or excitation conditions applied to the metals with large affinity to hydrogen/deuterium and determine a specific yield of ECPE, depending on excitation power applied to the sample.


II. Experimental Technique

For charged particle detection the purified Radtrack CR-39 plastic track detectors (with the size 2.0*1.0 cm2) by Landauer Inc. AND Fukuvi Chemical have been used. Especial purification procedure utilized for detector manufacturing as well as hermetic saving condition allow to minimize initial alpha track density of these CR-39 to less than 20 cm-2.


(3***) In other words less than 40 tracks per detector. A useful number to know.


Figure 3a and Figure 3b


(4***) Good to know that Radtrack and Fukuvi detectors are not different. Is it true that Fukuvi detectors are no longer commercially available?


These detectors were calibrated with alpha-sources (in the range of 1.6 7.7 MeV) and by monoenergetic cyclotron alpha-beams (in the energy range of 10.0 30.0 MeV) as well as by proton beams with energy ranging of 2.0-3.0 MeV. (Fig.3a,b). For energetic proton detection the detectors were also calibrated with Van DeGraaf accelerator by monoenergetic proton beams (energy ranging from 0.75 Ep 3.0 MeV), (Fig.2). After the beam exposure detectors were etched in 6N-NaOH at t=70C during 7 hrs. and investigated with optic microscope. Typical view of alpha-track picture is presented in Fig 4. As seen, at normal interaction of monoenergetic cyclotron beam with detector, the tracks observed after the etching have almost ideal circle-like shape. These nuclear tracks can be easy distinguished from the defects of CR-39 subsurface structure.


Figure 4


The efficiency of CR-39 detection with respect to different energy alphas and protons were estimated in accordance with their critical angles qc being determined by formula [4]: qc= sin-1{[1-(dE/2h)2]/[1+(dE/2h)2]}, where dE-is the track diameter produced by charged particle with energy E (Fig 1,2), and h = 9.1m is the depth of etched layer in CR-39 at our etching condition. Knowledge of the critical angles calculated from above formula allow to determine the efficiency e of the charged particle detection as:


e = 0.5 * (1-sin qc)


(5***) This is wrong; replace sin by cos. Efficiency is defined as the ratio of the solid angle over 4*p. I suppose they reprint the same mistake from the 2002 paper (ICCF9 in China). Am I the first one who noticed it? I do not think that the reference 1 has anything to do with the efficiency of CR-39 detectors.


In electrolysis experiments the freshly opened CR-39 detector chips were attached either to the Pd thin film cathode(Foreground)


(6***) It is not clear to me how to apply CR-39 to a cathode during the electrolysis. They used a very thin cathode. Somehow (according to their 2002 paper at ICCF9 in China) they placed the Cr-39 detectors (open and shielded) inside the electrolyte, next to the thin cathode. This if not at all obvious from reading this paper. Why there is no illustration? Why there is no reference to their earlier paper at this place?


or to the substrate side or/and immersed in electrolyte in the cell (Background).


(7***) This formulation (with two or) is confusing. I would measure the background by placing the CR-39 detectors next to an identical cathode that has not been loaded with hydrogen, for example, at zero current. I will assume they did this.


Background experiments showed proportional growth of track density vs. time for CR-39 immersed in electrolyte (Fig.4). At large Background duration [long exposure] it is possible to observe two separate alpha-peaks with track diameters located at 8.0 and 9.0 m, respectively (Fig.5). The energy positions of these peaks are in good agreement with conventional alpha-Background and are normally corresponded to about 7.0 MeV radon (8.0 m) and 5.0 MeV (9.0 m) thoron series of natural alpha-nuclides.


(8***) In other words, the electrolyte or cathode (or both) contained traces of emitters of natural alpha particles.


Figure 5


(9***) According to this figure they can distinguish diameters differing by only 0.1 m.


In order to separate high-energy alphas and low-energy protons that could be possibly emitted during electrolysis runs, the thin Cu-foils (25 m thick) were inserted between the cathode metallic coating and the CR-39 surface. 25 m Cu coating is completely absorbs all alpha-particles and protons with energies below 9.0 and 2.3 MeV, respectively.


(10***) I suppose that a separate experiment was conducted to show that the foil itself is not alpha radioactive (at a very low level). Why is nothing said about this? Alpha particles from the surface of the foil, interpreted as if they were traversing the foil, could be assigned more energy than they really have.


Background measurements in experiments with Cu-covered CR-39 were performed similarly to that with open detectors. As expected, these background experiments showed significant reduction( ~2 times) in the total track density compared to that obtained with open CR-39 detectors.


(11***) Why as expected? On what basis could one expect that one half of all tracks recorded with the open detector (without the Cu foil) would be due to low energy alpha particles and protons? I suppose this was based on their earlier data. How else would one predict the percentage of low energy particles (such as 50%)?


(12***) How large were these densities? What about errors of judgment in deciding which tracks to count and which to attribute to surface defects on CR-39?  Based on my limited experience, I suspect that the adjective typical, used above to describe Figure #4, might be an exaggeration. 


In experiments with glow discharge and laser irradiation for particles identification and their energy estimation, we used CR-39 Fukuvi detectors covered with Al or Cu foils with the thickness in the range of 11-66 or 25-50 m, respectively. The experimental set ups used for deuterium glow discharge Ti-cathode bombardment and for powerful picosecond laser irradiation of Ti and TiDx targets are described elsewhere []. Power densities applied to the loaded/excited Pd or Ti samples (with respect to the total sample volume) during the electrolysis experiment, in glow discharge (GD) bombardment and in Laser irradiation are estimated as (2-5)x102, 105-106 and ~1021 W/cm3, respectively.


(13***) Why per cubic cm and not per square cm?


In series of experiments with GD the detectors covered with 11-33 m Al foils were placed behind the holes drilled in the Mo anode at the distance of 3.0 cm from the surface of Ti cathode.


In the laser experiment detectors, shielded with 11-66 m of Al or 25-50 m of Cu were placed at different angles toward the target (20 cm from the front of the target perpendicular to the beam direction and 4 cm distance behind the target)


Utilization of shielding foils of various thickness alongside with CR-39 calibration data allow identify and roughly reconstruct energy spectra of emitted alpha particles and protons.


III. Experimental Results

a. Electrolysis

The Foreground runs with electrolysis of Pd-thin film cathodes the exposed CR-39 detectors (t~2.0-30 days) showed the appearance of unusual diameter tracks that were not observed in Background detectors exposed in the same electrolytic cell. Indeed, in the track diameters distribution N(d), two significant peaks located at 7.0m and 6.0m observed in the Foreground runs (with electrolysis) with opened CR-39 detectors (Fig 6).


Figure 6


At the same time, almost no counts for tracks with d < 7.5m was found in the corresponding Background runs for detectors exposed in the same electrolytic cells.


(14***) I replaced mm by microns (mm instead of mm was an obvious typing error).


The low diameter tracks appeared to accompany an electrolysis of the thin Pd-film and Pd-black cathodes. The intensity of charged particle emissions and ratio between 6.0 and 7.0 m peaks during electrolysis are strongly depended upon the cathode history and structure (Table 1). It should be noted that generation of charged particle emissions during the electrolysis of thin Pd cathodes has a good reproducibility (in contrast to the irreproducible emission of DD-products in Pd-D systems).


(15***) According to Karabut, emission of charged particles is highly reproducible when Pd is bombarded with D (glow discharge). Is it a contradiction?


In the Foreground runs with the same cathode being carried out with 25 m Cu-film shielded CR-39 chips, the 7.0 and 6.0 mm peaks disappeared. But the other maximums ranging from 7.5 to 11.4 mm have appeared that were not found in Cu-shielded Background detectors (Fig 7).


(16***) This discussion of differences between Figures 6 and 7 is not clear to me.


Figure 7


The experiments with Cu-shielded detectors and a knowledge of CR-39 calibration curves (Fig 1,2) allowed to identify the energy and type of particles emitted in the Foreground runs with open CR-39 detectors. Taking into account stopping powers and ranges of 25 m Cu-film with respect to the alphas and protons with different energies, the initial energies of emitted particles were also calculated. Comparison of pictures obtained with opened and shielded detectors shows that 6 m peak is completely disappeared while a broad near 7.0 m peak in Fig. 6 shifted to the larger track diameters and split at least by 3 narrow peaks (Fig 7). Disappearance of 6.0 m peak in a shielded detector indicates to the low MeV proton nature of this peak. In accordance with our calibration data the estimated proton energy would be within 1.5-1.7 MeV (Fig 8a, b [7]).


Fig 8 a Fig. 8 b


(17***) Figure 8a has a line saying 39 detectors; it is confusing. The open Cr-39 detectors should be in one line. And what is 25 mcmCu/CR below that line?


(18***) Why are figures 8a and 8b not labeled consistently? Their legends are in different places.


(19***) These two figures show that 20 alpha particle tracks and 120 proton tracks were recorded on 3 cm^2 of Cr-39? Can this 1:6 ratio be interpreted in terms the higher Coulomb barrier penetrability of protons with respect to alpha particles?


(20***) How long did it take to accumulate so many tracks? A person attempting to reproduce the experiment would need to know this. In other words, what was the average emission rate? Information about the electrolytic cell should also be provided. 


In contrast to 6.0 m peak, the 7.0 m maximum, accordingly to its shift and splitting after crossing the Cu-shield should be ascribed to a broad 11-16 MeV alpha-peak. Indeed, the stopping range of alphas ranging from 11-16 MeV (for open Cr-39) would be consistent with observed narrow bands with energies 11.6, 12.5 and 14-16 MeV, respectively for Cu-covered detectors (Fig 8a). Due to higher resolution of CR-39 alpha-tracks for the lower energy particles (Fig 1) the broad 11-16 MeV alpha band could be observed as the single individual maximums after these particles crossed the Cu-foil. Therefore, we showed that electrochemical loading of Pd thin film cathodes on dielectric substrates unambiguously produce high-energy charged particles: 1.5-1.7 MeV protons and 11-16 MeV alphas.


b. Glow Discharge


Let us consider in details new results on ECPE obtained for more powerful loading process during low energy deuteron bombardment of Ti-cathode. Typical spectra of charged particles emitted in such GD obtained with 11 and 33 m shielded CR-39 detectors are shown in Fig 9.


Figure 9


(21***) This figure shows ~80 tracks/cm2 in 7 hrs (50+20+10=80). It also shows that diameter become wider (lowering of energy) when a thicker shield is inserted. But why didn't they show diameters (and numbers of tracks) detected with the unshielded detectors? Does it mean that using unshielded detectors is not possible in the case of their glow discharge experiments?


As seen, the spectrum of charged particles of 11 m shielded CR-39 contains 3 characteristic peaks with track diameters 5.2, 6.2 and 7.2 m, respectively. In accordance with Fukuvi Cr-39 calibration those peaks have to be corresponded to 3.0 MeV protons (5.2 m), 1.4 MeV/2.8 MeV protons /deuterons (6.2 m) and 13.0 2.0 MeV alphas (7.2 m). Indeed, increase in Al shielding thickness from 11 to 33 m leads to corresponding increase in track diameters for all three peaks observed at for 11 m Al-covered Cr-39 detectors.


(22***) The above text is too condensed, for my taste. They interpreting say the peaks with track diameters 5.2, 6.2 and 7.2 m. The first is due to protons of 3 MeV, the second is due either to to 1.4 MeV protons or 2.8 MeV deuterons, and the third is due to 13 MeV alphas. The last sentence is confusing, unless the phrase observed at for 11 mm Al-covered Cr-39 detectors is removed. They probably say that all red peaks (even single counts) shift to the right (diameters become larger).


The shifts of these peaks (5.2 5.6 m; 6.2 6.6+6.8 m (spitting) and 7.2 7.6 m) is really corresponded to the energy losses of 3.0 MeV protons (from DD-reaction), 2.8 MeV deuterons and 13.0 MeV alphas, in accordance with the stopping ranges of these energetic particles in Al. In Fig. 10 the more detailed picture of alpha emission is presented and compared to the background in GD chamber.


Figure 10


As seen from the Fig. 10 the energetic alpha emission in GD at given discharge parameters exceeds the background counts in the range of 7.2 m track diameters about 25 times.


(23***) I can not see this from Figure 10. By the way, why some blue background bars indicate negative negative densities? But I do see that this time they refer to Al shielding (while Figure 9 referred to Cu shielding). I suppose it was the same experiment in which some detectors were covered with Cu and others with Al. It looks that they had about 45 tracks/cm2 in 7 hrs.


At the same time the usual alpha-background (d 8.0 m ) in presence of GD is not significantly distinguished from that in absence of glow discharge voltage. The yield of energetic alphas after background subtracting was found to be Nα = 0.12 0.02 a/s in 4 ster.


(24***) But according to Karabut, who used the Pd target (not Ti target) the rate of emission of energetic alphas (at 1000 volts) was about 1 per second. This is nearly ten times more than the above number. Why is this not discussed? I would use Pd to increase the yield?


This yield of energetic alphas is about 2-3 orders of magnitude high than that detected in electrolysis experiment.


(25`***) Aha, here is the answer to my previous question; for the electrolysis the rate was about 0.001 to 0.0001 per second. 


The yield of 2.8 MeV deuterons in GD experiment is about 2-3 times larger than for alphas.


(26***) Can this ratio also be interpreted in terms the higher Coulomb barrier penetrability of deuterons with respect to alpha particles? What I have in mind is a barrier lowered by screening.


In Fig. 11 the spectra of charged particles obtained for two different GD voltages are presented.


Figure 11


As it is expected the 3.0 MeV peak from DD-reaction in Ti under deuteron bombardment is strongly depended on GD voltage. Meanwhile, the intensities of 2.8 MeV deuteron and 13 MeV alpha peaks are depended on the GD voltage much weaker.


(27***) On what basis is this expected? Why should the effect of discharge voltage on the probability of emission of DD protons be much more pronounced than on the probabilities of emission of more more energetic particles?


In Fig 12a and 12b the more detail pictures of dependencies shows This fact indicate to absence of direct connection between energetic charged particle emission and DD-reaction. The detailed yield dependencies for 3.0 MeV protons, 2.8 MeV deuterons and 13.0 MeV alphas on discharge voltages in the range of 0.8-2.45 kV are presented in Fig 12 a, b.


Figure 12 a  and Figure 12 b.


As seen, the yields of energetic deuterons and alpha particles normalized to the effective discharge power almost independent on deuteron energy Ed, while DD-reaction yield of 3.0 MeV protons tends to grow exponentially with increase in Ed. The experiments showed that the yields of energetic deuterons and alpha particles in Glow discharge are roughly proportional to GD power applied to the Ti cathode (Fig. 13)


Figure 13


(28***) Zeros below the x axis should be replaced by numbers of watts.


The fact of near linear dependence of energetic charged particle emission yields on effective power applied to the Ti cathode leads to a simple assumption that the yield of ECPE from the surface of metals with large affinity to hydrogen could be further increase with increase in specific power applied to these metals.


c. Laser Experiment


(29***) Their laser induced fusion is probably not cold. This is the end of my questions and comments.


In order to check the assumption of ECPE yield increase with applied specific power we have performed a search of energetic alphas in ultra-high specific power applied experiments on picosecond laser excitation of Ti/TiHx and TiDx targets. The details of this experiments, including set up are described in another report published in this Proceedings [8]. We note here that powerful laser irradiation of solid targets (polymers and some metals including Al , Pb LiD and so on) was studied during last 10 years to induce intense MeV protons and heavy ion emissions as well as to the purposes of inertial DD-fusion and isotope separation (see review article [9]). Here in experiments with powerful laser we, probably, first use targets possessing large affinity to hydrogen/deuterium (Ti and TiDx foils of 30 m-thick). The parameters of laser were: power density P=2x1018 W/cm2, pulse duration τ = 1.5x10-12 s and wave length λ = 1.054 m. To compare our results with usually employed targets (to produce intense proton beams) we also used polyethylene (PE) film targets of 35 m-thick.

The main charged particle component emitted on laser shots with both Ti(TiDx) and PE targets was found to be protons (deuterons) with energies Ep 1.0 MeV (Np ~ 1011/pulse). The heavy ion component with mass A > 4 was also detected. However, besides these species during the shots on Ti and TiDx targets we found we found also energetic alpha particles that were not detected in experiments with PE (Fig.) As seen the laser shots on Ti-target produce the same tracks at the CR-39 detectors covered with 11 m of Al (d=7.2m) that were detected for of electrolysis and GD loading experiments. The similar shots on PE target showed possible alpha emission level comparable with background in vacuum chamber of target installation.


Figure 14


In Fig. 15 the spectra of alpha particles detected in the same laser shot by CR-39 detectors covered with various shielding and placed between 0-30 with respect to TiDx- target are presented.


Figure 15


The main peak in Fig 15 corresponding to 13.0 2.0 MeV alphas is shifted to larger track diameters for 33 and 66 m Al shielded detectors, well in accordance with 13 MeV alphas stopping range in Al. For 50 m Cu covered detector this peak is completely disappeared because the 50 m thick Cu shielding will stop all alpha particles with energy E 15.0 MeV.

The same energy alpha-particle emission, but about 30 times less in intensity was detected from the opposite side of Ti/TiDx target (the angle between the detector and target = 180) (Fig 16.) Here as in Fig 15. a track diameter corresponding to alpha peak (d=9.9 m) is also in good agreement with stopping range of 13.0 MeV alphas in the sandwich consisting of Cu-shielding and Ti-foil [25m Cu(shielding) +30 m Ti(sample thickness)]. This fact allow assume that alphas were originated mainly at the front side of the Ti target. The estimated average intensities of alpha emission from the front and opposite sides of Ti/TiDx targets (taking into account geometrical efficiency of measurement) was found to be If ~ 2x104/pulse-sr-1 sr. and Io ~7x102/pulse- sr-1, respectively.


Figure 16


In Fig 17 the results of alpha-spectra reconstruction from CR-39 data obtained for various shielding type and thickness (taking into account cyclotron calibration) are presented. The results of such reconstruction for Ti and TiDx targets within experimental error are close one to another. In the Fig. 18 a comparison of alpha spectra obtained from laser experiment with Ti-target and Pd-glass electrolysis are shown. As seen from this figure, the spectra of laser experiment and electrolysis detection look quite similar within the measurement error (determined by standard deviations of alpha-calibrations and errors of track diameter measurements) and both spread in the energy range of 10-17 MeV.


Figure 17 and Figure 18


IV Discussions and Conclusions

Thus, in three independent studies of ECPE during hydrogen(deuterium) loading of Pd and Ti targets or excitation of their hydrides/deuterides, the similar energetic alpha particles and protons/deuterons are found to be emitted, despite the seemingly dissimilar loading/excitation techniques. We found that the absolute intensity of ECPE is roughly proportional to the specific power applied to the metal target during its loading or excitation (Fig 19). There are three different power density areas corresponding to the studied ranges of specific power applied in experiments on ECPE detection with hydrogen/deuterium loading/excitation of Ti and Pd: electrolysis -((2-6)x102 W/cm3); GD -(105-106 W/cm3) and laser irradiation - (~ 1022 W/cm3) are presented in this graph. On the other hand, the specific energy required to emit one alpha particle (E > 8.0 MeV) in all these loading /excitation cases was found to be Es = 17 8 eV/at.Ti(Pd) and practically independent on excitation power applied to the target (Fig. 20).


The discovered property of the metals with large affinity to hydrogen to emit energetic charged particles is probably concerned to peculiarities of these metals. On one side, during hydrogen loading the metals such as Pd and Ti are subjected to strong plastic deformation accompanied by massive generation of non-equilibrium phonons. On the other side, the metals with large affinity to hydrogen may capture high amount of helium (from surrounding atmosphere or during the loading alongside with hydrogen), which have tend to segregate in the site of high internal strain. We assume that loading or excitation procedure produce non-equilibrium phonons in the near-surface layer of Pd or Ti. These phonons would be focused (concentrated ) in the some specific sites with high internal strain near the surface. If mechanisms of energy transfer from the concentrated optic phonon modes (with high amplitude and frequency) to the atoms captured in the sites with high internal strain is really existed [10], then such energy transfer can lead to effective acceleration of the light atoms captured in the sites of high internal strain (hydrogen, deuterium helium).


Figure 19 and Figure 20


Regardless of mechanisms involved in ECPE phenomenon in Pd and Ti, we emphasize that some peculiarities of LENR could be more clear, taking into account similarities between processes observed in electrolytic loading of these metals (LENR effects) and powerful laser irradiation effects. These similarities include:


-Neutron spectra for deuterated targets in laser and LENR experiments : besides 2.45 MeV peak high energy neutrons up to 10 MeV (compare: P.A. Norreys et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, 40, 175(1998) and A.G. Lipson et al., Fusion Tech., 38, 238 (2000)). High energy component of neutron spectra in laser case is explained by presence of MeV deuterons (Probably similar effect in LENR case).


-Charged particle emissions, including their energy ranges


-Isotope separations and exotic transmutations


-Production of craters at the target surface.


-Possible generation of isomeric states of nuclei in solids (after-emissions of gamma and X-rays)



1. F.F. Cecil, D. Ferg, H. Liu et al., Nuclear Phys. A539, 75 (1992).

2. R. Taniguchi, Trans. Fusion Tech., 26 (4T), 186 (1994).

3. J. Kasagi, T. Ohtsuki, K.Ishu and M. Hiraga, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 64, 777 (1995).

4. A. Takahashi, K. Maruta, K. Ochiai, H. Miyamaru, Fusion Tech. 34, 256 (1998).

5. A.G. Lipson, B.F. Lyakhov, A.S. Roussetski et al., Fusion Tech., 38, 238 (2000).

6. A.G. Lipson, A.S. Roussetski, A. Takahashi and J. Kasagi, Bull. Lebedev Phys. Inst., No.10, 22 (2001).,

7. A.G. Lipson , A.S. Roussetski and G.H. Miley., Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc., 88, 638 (2003).

8. A.S. Roussetski et al., in this Proceedings.

9. K.W. Ledingham, P. McKenna, R.P. Singhal, Science, 300, 1107 (2003).

10. P.L. Hagelstein, Anomalies in Metal Deuterides, Proc. ICCF-9, Beijing, May 2002.


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